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Catawba (also known as Issa or Esaw, but most commonly Iswa) are a federally recognized nation of Native Americans, known as the Catawba Indian Nation. They live in the Southeast United States, along the border between North and South Carolina. The Catawba were once considered one of the most powerful Southeastern Siouan tribes. The Catawba and other Siouan peoples are believed to have coalesced as tribes in the Southeast.


Primarily involved in agriculture, the Catawba were friendly towards early European colonists. They were at almost constant war with tribes of other major language families: the Iroquois, the Algonquian Shawnee and Delaware, and the Iroquoian Cherokee, who fought for control over the large Ohio Valley (including what is now in present-day West Virginia).[1] They served during the American Revolutionary War with the colonists against the British. Decimated by earlier smallpox epidemics, tribal warfare and social disruption, the Catawba declined markedly in number in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.


The Catawba River (named after the Native American tribes that first settled on the banks) is a tributary of the Wateree River in the U.S. states of North Carolina and South Carolina. The river is approximately 220 miles (350 km) long. It rises in the Appalachian Mountains and drains into Piedmont, and is impounded through series of reservoirs for flood control and hydroelectricity. The river is named after the Catawba tribe of Native Americans. They were known in their own language as the Kawahcatawbas, "the people of the river".


It rises in the Blue Ridge Mountains in western McDowell County, North Carolina, approximately 20 miles (30 km) east of Asheville. It flows ENE, forming, along with the Linville River, Lake James. It then passes north of Morganton, then southeast through the Lake Norman reservoir. From Lake Norman it flows south, passing west of Charlotte, then flowing through the Mountain Island Lake and Lake Wylie reservoirs, where it forms approximately 10 miles (15 km) of the border between North Carolina and South Carolina. It flows into northern South Carolina, passing east of Rock Hill, then through Fishing Creek Reservoir near Great Falls, and then into the Lake Wateree reservoir, approximately 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Columbia. At the now-submerged confluence with Wateree Creek, it becomes the Wateree River.